Energy Management System Thesis

Energy Management System Thesis-53
The two microgrid definitions, which are currently in use, are provided by the US Department of Energy Microgrid Exchange Group and by CIGRÉ C6.22 Working Group, Microgrid Evolution Roadmap, respectively:“A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid.A microgrid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected or island-mode”“Microgrids are electricity distribution systems containing loads and distributed energy resources, (such as distributed generators, storage devices, or controllable loads) that can be operated in a controlled, coordinated way either while connected to the main power network or while islanded”The microgrid concept supports an alternative approach to the integration of distributed energy resources characterized by low installed capacity to distribution grids [4].

The two microgrid definitions, which are currently in use, are provided by the US Department of Energy Microgrid Exchange Group and by CIGRÉ C6.22 Working Group, Microgrid Evolution Roadmap, respectively:“A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid.A microgrid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected or island-mode”“Microgrids are electricity distribution systems containing loads and distributed energy resources, (such as distributed generators, storage devices, or controllable loads) that can be operated in a controlled, coordinated way either while connected to the main power network or while islanded”The microgrid concept supports an alternative approach to the integration of distributed energy resources characterized by low installed capacity to distribution grids [4].

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When compared to conventional power systems, the main advantage of microgrids consists of the controllable unit feature.

Microgrids can be operated as a single load, ensuring easy control and compliance to rules and regulations without impacting the reliability and safety of the user’s power supply.

Also, the algorithm involves the constant pitch scanning of the foreseen operating range.

The mentioned MPPT controller model represents a component of the AC/DC microgrid, suitable for the evaluation of the components interconnection mode.

Furthermore, the chapter leads to the microgrids development in terms of operation and efficiency by achieving an Energy Management System designed for a small mixed microgrid with separate AC and DC rings bidirectionally interconnected by static converters.

For the last couple of years, a new solution suitable to local energy distribution within existing power systems has been proposed and developed: microgrids [1].The MPPT algorithm was implemented by measuring the electrical current for several voltage values at the required time interval.This method removes any possibility for the system to enter an unstable oscillation mode (sometimes affecting other types of algorithms).Currently, a typical microgrid configuration, Figure 1, consists of an open architecture, including electrical, communication, command, and control components, which allow the users and energy sources interconnection.Thanks to the capability of offering higher levels for power quality and reliability, a large number of users will adopt power supply solutions based on advanced technology and power electronics in order to minimize voltage sags, interruptions and other voltage fluctuations, or other power-quality disturbances.Integration of distributed generation units and other users within the low and medium voltage distribution grid induces a variety of problems related to the management and control of microgrids.These aspects can be solved by using significantly different Energy Management Systems for the operation of microgrids, comparing to those applied to conventional power systems.In order to simulate the operation of the photovoltaic cell, the single-diode model with ideal junction was used, as suggested by Eq.(1), which avoids complex calculations and leads to increasing the simulator running speed without introducing significant errors to the overall purpose of the microgrid simulator.When adjusting the output voltage of the solar cells in a variable environment, permanent maximum power generation becomes a problem.Under these conditions, tracking the maximum power point for existing photovoltaic systems increases the efficiency in power generation [9].

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