Literature Review On Cervical Cancer

Literature Review On Cervical Cancer-14
Implementation of grassroots enlightenment and screening programs are warranted in this population to decrease the screening disparity experienced by this burgeoning population.

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Currently, there exists a limited understanding of the factors influencing cervical cancer screening among African immigrants (AIs) to the U. Sub-Saharan Africa is historically a region of intense migration and population movement prompted by demographic, economic, ecological and political factors [19]. From 1980 to 2013, the African population in the U. Immigrants bring with them their health profiles and health-related knowledge, values, beliefs, and perceptions reflecting their cultural background [23].

Hence, the African immigrant (AI) group is a rapidly growing population in the U. Cervical cancer screening services have been poorly implemented in many developing countries because of the high cost of health services, poor health infrastructures, insufficient numbers of pathologists and technicians, lack of resources, and accessibility particularly by people living in the rural areas since many of the available services are based in secondary and tertiary health care facilities located in urban areas [4,24].

This systematic review evaluates the state of cervical cancer screening research in AIs and identifies current gaps.

From this review, we found a low screening adherence rate among AIs.

These recommendations are for women at average risk and do not apply to women at increased risk for cervical cancer such as women who have a history of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer; women who have been exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol, or women who are immunocompromised [11].

Recommended screening practices should not change based on HPV vaccination status [16].Co-testing for HPV in combination with Pap screening can help to assess cervical cancer risk [15].If there is no history of cervical cancer or precancerous abnormalities, women who have had a hysterectomy that includes removal of the cervix and women over age 65 do not need cervical cancer screening [15].The American Cancer Society, American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and U. Preventive Services Task Force (2012) recommend Pap screening begin at age 21 years and be completed every 3 years until women are over 65 years.Women ages 30-65 years may alternatively choose co-testing with HPV and Pap screening every 5 years.The awareness and utilization of Pap screening is increasing in Sub-Saharan Africa.However, the unavailability and inaccessibility of cervical cancer screening services continue to lead to only a small percentage of women being screened in sub-Saharan Africa [4]. may be disproportionately affected by cervical cancer due to health care factors, culturally determined beliefs and attitudes, and cervical cancer screening barriers [26-28].Cervical cancer screening has successfully decreased cervical cancer incidence and mortality [5] in developed countries.However, screening in most African countries remains inaccessible and underutilized by African women [6].Cervical cancer incidence rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Melanesia, and the Caribbean and are lowest in Western Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North America.There is significant variation in cervical cancer rates by geographical region, which reflects differences in the availability and utilization of cervical cancer screening based upon geographical area [2].

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