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In the literacy example, the following specific variables were identified: telling stories, reading fluency, reading comprehension, vocabulary, and interest in reading.
Indeed, males scored higher, but only by 0.4 points on the test. There will virtually always be differences between two groups, although the differences can be very small.
The purpose of inferential statistics (e.g., t-tests, ANOVA, and ANCOVA) is to statistically determine whether the difference between two or more groups is significant enough to meaningfully say that there is a difference between these two groups of individuals.
(This is exactly the p-value that identifies statistical significance: p The key identifying factor of a causal comparative study is that it compares two or more groups on a dependent variable.
Therefore, a research question for a causal comparative study will read as follows: There is no significant difference between [define the two groups] on [dependent variable].
Instead of defining all three groups, state that there is no significant effect of the variable: There is no significant effect of [independent variable] on [dependent variable].
For example, "There is no significant effect of socioeconomic status on children's interest in reading." They key identifying factor of experimental and quasi-experimental designs is that they examine the effect of a treatment on a dependent variable.(You first need to identify whether the purpose better relates to a Research Question or a Research Hypothesis.The introduction leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular topic of inquiry.The literacy study that examines the effect of telling stories on literacy skills should be an experimental study.Research Hypotheses for this design should read as follows: There is no significant effect of [treatment] on [dependent variable].Therefore, analyzing this Research Question separately from the Research Hypothesis is meaningless.Do not write a Research Question that is better written as a Research Hypothesis.When you have finished this step, review the Purposes and identify the matching Research Question or Hypothesis, and vis versa.Once this has been completed, then it is time to start writing Chapter 3. For each purpose, write a matching Research Question OR Research Hypothesis.Let's return to the example of the effect of telling stories on children's literacy skills.The Purposes, Research Questions, and Research Hypotheses will be described for this study.