Tags: Essays On The Bombing Of Hiroshima And NagasakiGlobal Regents Essay TopicsExamples Of Critical Thinking In Nursing PracticeCollege Essay ThemesCloning Research PaperNo Essay Scholarship 2014Appendix Placement Research PaperSomatic Psychology ThesisReligous Education CourseworkResearch Paper On Women
The moral obligation to protect a vulnerable population is heightened by the dangers of tobacco to children in all stages of development and the fact that those risks are preventable.
Exposure to ETS (also known as passive smoking) increases the risk of cancer in people who have never smoked (Hackshaw et al.). Control of the risks and diseases related to tobacco use has been hampered by continuing efforts by the tobacco industry to promote and market its products without constraints (U. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000b; Ong and Glatz).
Tobacco use has become a serious pediatric health issue, but in spite of regulation, children and adolescents continue to be able to obtain tobacco products (U. The negative health effects of tobacco use are widely known and may be widely acknowledged even though individuals may not change their behavior on the basis of that knowledge. The ethical issues are also complex and have evolved over time and as a result of political and legal factors.
However, the earlier ethical arguments regarding smoking and tobacco use will be reviewed here to gain a historical perspective.
Before the harmful effects of ETS were demonstrated, the health risks of smoking suggested that at least some restrictive policies designed to protect smokers from themselves could be ethically justified.
Reflection on some of the facts gives one a sense of the ethical and policy problems posed by smoking.
Research Paper On Smoking
Approximately 440,000 deaths in the United States are due to smoking and diseases related to tobacco use (American Lung Association, 2002).For example, in 1992 the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO), the chief hospital accreditation agency in the United States, required hospitals to forbid smoking within their premises by 1994 as a condition of accreditation (Center for Disease Control Chronology of Significant Developments).Robert Goodin (1989) used these considerations to develop a vigorous case for a public policy aimed at a total ban on smoking.Evidence was derived from epidemiological studies, typically retrospective laboratory studies, and findings at autopsy. The USPHS also affirmed a causal link between smoking and numerous other cancers, as well as other diseases in 1964, when Surgeon General Luther Terry issued an advisory report titled Smoking and Health (U. Both government and private agencies have been instrumental in publicizing and documenting research findings and their implications, most efficiently through their websites.In 1957 based on the findings of a federally sponsored study group on smoking and health the U. Public Health Service (USPHS) concluded that there was a causal link between smoking and lung cancer (U. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists all the surgeon general’s reports on tobacco and health from 1964 to 2001.The reasons for the lack of behavioral change are many and complex (U. Major ethical issues related to smoking and other tobacco use are: (1) the protection of nonsmokers from the effects of ETS; (2) the protection of children from an addictive product; (3) the scientific integrity of tobacco industry research; and (4) corporate integrity in marketing tobacco products.In the past ethical arguments about smoking focused on issues of autonomy, paternalism, and societal harm.Scientists began to build the case for the dangers of smoking when A. Broders (1920) published an article correlating tobacco use with lip cancer.Subsequent studies repeatedly linked tobacco use, in particular smoking, with a variety of diseases, primarily lung cancer and respiratory diseases. Since 1964 a wealth of research has demonstrated the deleterious effects of tobacco use on health.Other websites—the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the U. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), the National Library of Medicine, and the National Institutes of Health (including the National Cancer Institute), as well as private foundations such as the American Cancer Society and the American Lung Association—all provide access to research and educational materials for laypersons and professionals.The importance of tobacco use and exposure as a health risk is demonstrated further in the USDHHS document Healthy People 2010 (2000a), which cites morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use and ETS as one of the leading indicators of the health of the American people for the next ten years.