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Neurotransmitters trigger the receptors on the next nerve cell dendrites to produce a new electrical current.Different types of nerves use different neurotransmitters to convey impulses across the synapses.The axon is the long membrane projection that transmits the neural impulse at a distance to other neurons, to muscle cells and to other effector cells.
Both nervous system and the endocrine system are considered integrative systems.
This designation stems from the fact that both systems control and regulate biological functions and act at distance, receiving information from organs and tissues and sending effector commands (nervous impulses or hormones) to organs and tissues, thus integrating the body.
Some of the impulses stimulate the next nerve cell, whereas others inhibit it.
White matter contains relatively very few neurons and consists mainly of axons that are wrapped with many layers of myelin and of the oligodendrocytes that make the myelin. (Myelin speeds the conduction of nerve impulses—see Nerves.) Nerve cells routinely increase or decrease the number of connections they have with other nerve cells.
Afference is the conduction of sensory impulses and efference is the conduction of effector impulses (impulses that command some action in the body). Nerves are axon-containing structures which are home to a large number of axons and which are covered by connective tissue.
Nerves connect neural nuclei and ganglia with tissues.
The structures that form the nervous system can be divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The organs of the CNS are the brain (cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum) and spinal cord. In addition to these organs, the meninges (dura-mater, arachnoid and pia-mater) are also a part of the nervous system, since they cover and protect the encephalon and the spinal cord.
Neurons located at specific points can may have distant axonal terminations and can also receive impulses from the axons of distant neurons.
An example of this are the inferior motor neurons in the spinal cord, since their axons can transmit information to the extremities of the lower limbs, triggering foot contractions.