Token Economy Research Paper

Other will have a space where an image of something being earned such as a reinforcer can be placed.

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Often token economies are used in institutional settings (such as psychiatric hospitals or correctional facilities) to manage the behavior of individuals who may be aggressive or unpredictable.

However, the larger goal of token economies is to teach appropriate behavior and social skills that can be used in one's natural environment.

Just as the types of behaviors a token economy enforces are different, so are the ways in which this system is depicted.

Some charts are simply boards with a laminated sheet of paper, a particular number of Velcro strips with stars, smiley faces or other symbols.

Reinforcers that individuals would normally encounter in society, such as verbal praise, should accompany the awarding of tokens to aid in the fading process. "Restructuring an Existing Token Economy in a Psychiatric Facility for Children." Child & Family Behavior Therapy 23, no.

Token Economy Research Paper

Advantages of token economies are that behaviors can be rewarded immediately, rewards are the same for all members of a group, use of punishment (response cost) is less restrictive than other forms of punishment, and individuals can learn skills related to planning for the future. The premise of a token economy is that a child can earn a certain number of tokens by exhibiting desired behaviors.For example, a child may be required to earn 5 tokens which can be exchanged for a larger and more preferred item.The tokens are collected and later exchanged for a meaningful object or privilege.The primary goal of a token economy is to increase desirable behavior and decrease undesirable behavior.Initially tokens are awarded frequently and in higher amounts, but as individuals learn the desirable behavior, opportunities to earn tokens decrease.(The amount and frequency of token dispensing is called a reinforcement schedule.) For example, in a classroom, each student may earn 25 to 75 tokens the first day, so that they quickly learn the value of the tokens. By gradually decreasing the availability of tokens (fading), students should learn to display the desirable behavior independently, without the unnatural use of tokens.The result is the child exhibits the target behaviors occur more often.The amount of tokens required to earn a backup reinforcer are usually illustrated in a chart form.A token economy is a form of behavior modification designed to increase desirable behavior and decrease undesirable behavior with the use of tokens.Individuals receive tokens immediately after displaying desirable behavior.

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