(For other examples of science students writing to lay audiences, see Martin, 2010; Mc Dermott& Kuhn, 2011; Moni ., 2007; Sivey & Lee, 2008).
In addition to audience concerns, students also benefit from understanding how and why a particular format or genre helps them communicate with a target audience (especially when we think of genres as those recurring rhetorical reactions to typical communicative situations).
So for students, the teacher is not necessarily a reader or audience that will motivate the best possible work on a writing task. (1999) report that their interview research with 33 upper-division students yielded an intriguing statistic: "56% of the interviewees also described one or more nonteacher audiences" (328) for their academic tasks.
In many instances, the assignment called for a hypothetical audience other than the teacher, but even when the assignment didn't prompt students to write for readers other than the teacher, students directed their work toward "an individual they believed has specific content knowledge such as a CEO, coworker, or technician" (328).
Using Technology How can computer technologies support writing in my classes? Good writing assignments always start with a clear goal that the teacher can express, usually on the assignment sheet so that students understand the goal as well.
Designing and Assessing WAC Programs What is a WAC program? Good writing assignments also often take shape by thinking backwards.
What should I know about WAC and graduate education?
What writing resources are available for my students? Surprisingly, teachers have been known to assign writing tasks without articulating to themselves what the task is supposed to do for students.
The second assignment, used in the third year, required students to formulate and defend an argument whether research in the field of cold fusion should continue to be supported.
(504) Students write with a local audience of classmates and a larger institutional context of the university community in mind.